The Development of Czech Pronominal (en)Clitics


·The Project GAČR (GA17-02545S), 2017–2019·
Pavel Kosek Masaryk University
Olga Navrátilová Masaryk University
Radek Čech University of Ostrava

The project focuses on the development of the word order of Czech pronominal (en)clitics mi, si, ti, ho, mu, sě, tě. The analysis is based on representative parts of Old and Middle Czech Bibles (created in the 14th–18th centuries). The word order of pronominal (en)clitics is investigated in the phrase of finite verb. The research deals especially with the competition between the second position and the contact (verb adjacent) position of the (en)clitics, with the (en)clitic cluster, with the change of originally orthotonic pronominal forms ho, mu, sě, tě to “constant” (en)clitics and with the proclitization of pronominal (en)clitics. The project methodology draws on the tradition of Czech dependency and functional syntax. As the analysis of historical development of (en)clitics is also based on frequency characteristics of the observed phenomena, methods of quantitative linguistics are used for a further interpretation of the data.


Articles

Čech, R., Kosek, P., Navrátilová, O., Mačutek, J.: On the impact of the initial phrase length on the position of enclitics in the Old Czech

to appear

The paper brings an analysis of the relationship between the length of the initial phrase and the positions of pronominal enclitics in a clause. The hypothesis predicting the negative correlation between the length of this phrase and the proportion of enclitics in postinitial position was set up and tested. For the testing, selected books from the first edition of the Old Czech Bible translation were used. The hypothesis was not rejected, however, some differences among particular pronouns were revealed.

Kosek, P., Čech, R., Navrátilová, O.: The influence of the Latin Vulgate on the word order of pronominal enclitics in the 1st edition of the Old Czech Bible

to appear

The study is devoted to the word order of the short pronominal forms mi, sě, tě ‘me-DAT, REFL-ACC, you-ACC’ dependent on a finite verb in the 1st edition of the Old Czech Bible. The studied forms – permanent enclitics in the contemporary Czech – are numerous enough so that their analysis is possible (unlike other pronominal enclitic forms, i.e., si, ti, ho, mu ‘REFL-DAT, you-DAT, he-ACC, he-DAT’). In the introduction, we summarize the results of the previous research dedicated to the degree the forms sě and tě were enclitic and to the factors that influence the competition of the post-initial word order and a ‘contact’ word order of pronominal (and verbal) enclitics (the competition documented well into the beginning of the 20th century in Czech). In the second, analytical part, we deal with the possible influence of the Latin word order of Vulgate (Parisian Bible) on the word order of the studied forms.

Čech, R., Kosek, P., Mačutek, J., Navrátilová, O.: Proč (někdy) nemíchat texty aneb Text jako výchozí jednotka lingvistické analýzy

to appear

Čech, R., Kosek, P., Navrátilová, O., Mačutek, J.: Full valency and the position of enclitics in the Old Czech

Proceedings of the First Workshop on Quantitative Syntax (Quasy, SyntaxFest 2019), 2019, Association for Computational Linguistics, Paris, 83-88. pdf

The paper is focused on the analysis of the relationship between the full valency of the predicate and the position of enclitics in the clause. For this analysis, ones of the oldest Old Czech prose texts were used. We set up the hypothesis - the higher the full valency of the predicate, the lower the probability of the occurrence of the enclitic after the initial phrase of the clause – and test it. The hypothesis was corroborated only for narrative texts. In the case of poetic texts, the hypothesis was rejected.

Čech, R., Kosek, P., Navrátilová, O., Mačutek, J.: Wackernagel's Position and Contact Position of Pronominal Enclitics in Historical Czech. Competition or Cooperation?

Jazykovedný časopis, 2019, 70, 267-275. pdf

The paper focuses on analyzing the relationship among word order positions of pronominal enclitics in the history of Czech. Specifically, we look at the Wackernagel’s position and the contact position and we try to decide whether these two positions compete, as usually taken for granted, or whether there is a certain kind of cooperation between them. The results show that the positions do not compete, at least not in the majority of cases. We used a corpus based on selected books of the first edition of the Old Czech Bible and Kralice Bible for the analysis.

Kosek, P., Navrátilová, O., Čech, R., Mačutek, J.: Word Order of Reflexive 'sě' in Finite Verb Phrases in the First Edition of the Old Czech Bible Translation. (Part 1, 2)

Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis, 2018, 135, 3, 177-200.

The paper deals with the word order of reflexive sě, which is an item on the boundary between a pronominal form and a discrete morpheme. In the first part of the study, we investigate the (en)clitic status of sě in eight books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation. The analysis focuses only on sě that is dependent on a finite verb: it identifies all possible word order positions of sě in a clause and interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech (en)clitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an (en)clitic is located after first word/phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an (en)clitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item.
In the second part of the paper, the distribution of clause positions of the reflexive pronoun sě is analyzed statistically. Specifically, the impact of both stylistic factors and the length of the element in the initial position are investigated. The authors also discuss the possible influence of the word order of the Latin pretext (the Vulgate) on the Old Czech translation.

Kosek, P., Čech, R., Navrátilová, O., Mačutek, J.: On the Development of Old Czech (En)clitics

Glottometrics, 2018, 40, 51-62. pdf

In this part of the paper, the distribution of clause positions of the reflexive pronoun sě is analyzed statistically. Specifically, the impact of both stylistic factors and the length of the element in the initial position are investigated. The authors also discuss the possible influence of the word order of the Latin pretext (the Vulgate) on the Old Czech translation.

Kosek, P., Navrátilová, O., Čech, R.: Slovosled staročeských pronominálních enklitik závislých na VF ve staročeské bibli 1. redakce

SLAVIA. časopis pro slovanskou filologii, 2018, 87, 1-3, 189-204.

The paper is focused on the short pronominal forms that have status of so called stálá enklitika (‘permanent enclitics’ or enclitica tantum) in Modern Czech: mi ‘me’, ti ‘to you’, si ‘to myself / to yourself etc.’, sě (> se) ‘myself / yourself etc.’, tě ‘you’, ho ‘him’, mu ‘to him’. The analysis is based on the material gained from the selected books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation from the half of the 14th century. The first part of the study deals with the frequency of the analyzed forms, especially with the lack of the forms si, ti and the low frequency of the short forms ho, mu (developed from the disyllabic forms jeho > jho > ho, jemu > jmu > mu). The next part is focused on the word order properties of the analyzed pronominal forms that are dependent on a finite verb. The article interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech enclitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an enclitic is located after first word / phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an enclitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item. In the last part of the article, the question of the change of the previously orthotonic forms sě, tě into the permanent enclitic forms is examined.

Kosek, P., Čech, R., Navrátilová, O.: Starobylá dativní enklitika mi, si, ti ve staročeské bibli 1. redakce

In Malčík, P. (ed.). Vesper Slavicus. Sborník k nedožitým devadesátinám prof. Radoslava Večerky. Studia etymologica Brunensia 23, 2018, Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, Praha, 137-151.

Hlavním cílem tohoto příspěvku je prozkoumat slovosled dativních zájmenných forem mi, si, ti v jednom z nejstarších neveršovaných českých textů. Studie je součástí výzkumu vývoje českých pronominálních enklitik a jejím smyslem je připravit východisko pro analýzu slovosledu dalších zájmenných tvarů, které se ve stabilní enklitické formy změnily teprve v průběhu historického vývoje češtiny (ho, mu, sě, tě). Sledované formy mi, si, ti jsou krátké varianty dativu singuláru, které měly status enklitik tantum již od praslovanského období.


Talks

Full valency and the position of enclitics in the Old Czech
(R. Čech, P. Kosek, J. Mačutek, O. Navrátilová)

26. 8. 2019, Quasy. Quantitative Syntax 2019, Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3. pdf

Wackernagel’s Position and Contact Position of Pronominal Enclitics in Older Czech. Competition or Cooperation?
(R. Čech, P. Kosek, J. Mačutek, O. Navrátilová)

23. 10. - 25. 10. 2019, SLOVKO 2019. 10th International Conference NLP, Corpus Linguistics, Language Dynamics and Change, Slovak National Corpus, Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, SAS, Bratislava. pdf

On the development of the Czech pronominal enclitics in the finite VP in Older Czech Bible
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

13. 6. - 14. 6. 2019, DSSL 4. Diachronic Slavonic Syntax 4. Functional organisation of utterance in diachronic and comparative perspective in Slavic languages. Polish Academy of Sciences & Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań & Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland. pdf

Slovosled reflexivního sě ve staré češtině
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová, J. Mačutek)

9. 4. 2019, Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. pdf

Vliv hebrejštiny, řečtiny a latiny na slovosled pronominálních enklitik mi, ho, mu v Bibli kralické
(O. Navrátilová, P. Kosek, R. Čech, M. Horák)

9. - 11. 10. 2019, Diachronní setkání „TÝNEC“ 2019, Kostelec nad Černými lesy, ÚJČ, AV ČR. pdf

Slovosled pronominálních enklitik mi, ti, si, ho, mu závislých na verbu finitu v 1. vydání Bible kralické (1579–1594)
(O. Navrátilová, P. Kosek, R. Čech, J. Mačutek)

5. 3. 2019, Ústav Českého národního korpusu, FF UK, Praha. pdf

Délka syntaktické fráze a klauze a jejich vliv na slovosledné postavení staročeských pronominálních enklitik
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

18. 3. 2019, ÚFAL Monday seminar, Institute of Formal and Applied Linguistics, MFF UK, Prague. pdf

Slovosled reflexivního sě závislého na přechodníku ve staročeské bibli 1. redakce
(P. Kosek, O. Navrátilová, R. Čech)

13. - 15. 5. 2019, 20. mezinárodní setkání mladých lingvistů, FF UP, Olomouc. pdf

Why are there variations of the word order positions of enclitics in Old Czech?
(R. Čech, P. Kosek, J. Mačutek, O. Navrátilová)

4. 7. - 8. 7. 2018, QUALICO 2018 International Quantitative Linguistics Conference, University of Wroclaw. pdf

On the competing word order position of the Czech pronominal enclitics in the Oldest Czech Bible
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

24. 10. 2018, Department of Slavic and Hungarian Studies, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. pdf

On the word order of the enclitic pronominal forms "mi, ti, si, ho, mu" in the Bible of Kralice (1579–1594)
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

27. 11. 2018, Institut für Slawistik Universität Wien. pdf

Slovosled pronominálních (en)klitik mi, si, ti, ho, mu v Bibli kralické
(P. Kosek, O. Navrátilová, R. Čech)

1. 11. - 2. 11. 2018, Diachronní setkání v Řevnicích. UJČ, AV ČR. pdf

Word order of enclitic pronouns in finite verb phrases in the first edition of the Old Czech Bible translation
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

22. 11. 2017, Slavisches Seminar, University of Tübingen, Germany. pdf

Word order of reflexive "sě" in the finite VP in the Oldest Czech Bible
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

2. 11. - 5. 11. 2017, DSSL 3. Diachronic Slavonic Syntax 3. University of Salzburg. Austria. pdf

Word order of the reflexive sě in the oldest Czech Bible translation
(P. Kosek, O. Navrátilová, R. Čech)

18. 10. - 20. 10. 2017, Mechanisms and constraints on Clitic Climbing, Regensburg. pdf

Development of Czech Enclitics and the Altmann-Piotrovskij law
(R. Čech, J. Mačutek)

28. 9. - 29. 9. 2017, Altmann-Piotrovskij law. University of Vienna. pdf

Teoretická východiska zkoumání pronominálních enklitik ve starší češtině
(P. Kosek, R. Čech)

15. 5. - 17. 5. 2017, 18. Mezinárodní setkání mladých lingvistů,FF UP, Olomouc. pdf

Development of Word Order of Czech pronominal ( en )clitics
(P. Kosek, R. Čech, O. Navrátilová)

23. 3. - 24. 3. 2017, Word Order and Information structure: a Cross- and Intra-Linguistic Perspective, Palacký University, Olomouc. pdf

Results

The project fulfilled all of the main objectives:

  • a corpus of selected books of older Czech Bibles was created,
  • in the corpus, examples of Czech pronominal (en)clitics (approx. 9000 examples) were hand-picked and annotated,
  • these examples were then partially compared with their Latin, Greek and Hebrew equivalents (approx. 1800 examples),
  • the word-order properties of pronominal (en)clitics dependent on a finite verb were analyzed, and special attention was paid to the distribution of word-order positions,
  • hypotheses concerning the word-order properties of these forms were formulated and statistically tested (in particular, the following factors should be mentioned: the impact of style; of length of the initial phrase; of the complexity of a clause; of Latin, Greek and Hebrew source texts).


  • Pavel Kosek: kosek@phil.muni.cz
    Olga Navrátilová: olga@phil.muni.cz
    Radek Čech: cechradek@gmail.com