The project focuses on the development of the word order of Czech pronominal (en)clitics mi, si, ti, ho, mu, sě, tě. The analysis is based on representative parts of Old and Middle Czech Bibles (created in the 14th–18th centuries). The word order of pronominal (en)clitics is investigated in the phrase of finite verb. The research deals especially with the competition between the second position and the contact (verb adjacent) position of the (en)clitics, with the (en)clitic cluster, with the change of originally orthotonic pronominal forms ho, mu, sě, tě to “constant” (en)clitics and with the proclitization of pronominal (en)clitics. The project methodology draws on the tradition of Czech dependency and functional syntax. As the analysis of historical development of (en)clitics is also based on frequency characteristics of the observed phenomena, methods of quantitative linguistics are used for a further interpretation of the data.
The paper brings an analysis of the relationship between the length of the initial phrase and the positions of pronominal enclitics in a clause. The hypothesis predicting the negative correlation between the length of this phrase and the proportion of enclitics in postinitial position was set up and tested. For the testing, selected books from the first edition of the Old Czech Bible translation were used. The hypothesis was not rejected, however, some differences among particular pronouns were revealed.
The study is devoted to the word order of the short pronominal forms mi, sě, tě ‘me-DAT, REFL-ACC, you-ACC’ dependent on a finite verb in the 1st edition of the Old Czech Bible. The studied forms – permanent enclitics in the contemporary Czech – are numerous enough so that their analysis is possible (unlike other pronominal enclitic forms, i.e., si, ti, ho, mu ‘REFL-DAT, you-DAT, he-ACC, he-DAT’). In the introduction, we summarize the results of the previous research dedicated to the degree the forms sě and tě were enclitic and to the factors that influence the competition of the post-initial word order and a ‘contact’ word order of pronominal (and verbal) enclitics (the competition documented well into the beginning of the 20th century in Czech). In the second, analytical part, we deal with the possible influence of the Latin word order of Vulgate (Parisian Bible) on the word order of the studied forms.
The paper is focused on the analysis of the relationship between the full valency of the predicate and the position of enclitics in the clause. For this analysis, ones of the oldest Old Czech prose texts were used. We set up the hypothesis - the higher the full valency of the predicate, the lower the probability of the occurrence of the enclitic after the initial phrase of the clause – and test it. The hypothesis was corroborated only for narrative texts. In the case of poetic texts, the hypothesis was rejected.
The paper focuses on analyzing the relationship among word order positions of pronominal enclitics in the history of Czech. Specifically, we look at the Wackernagel’s position and the contact position and we try to decide whether these two positions compete, as usually taken for granted, or whether there is a certain kind of cooperation between them. The results show that the positions do not compete, at least not in the majority of cases. We used a corpus based on selected books of the first edition of the Old Czech Bible and Kralice Bible for the analysis.
The paper deals with the word order of reflexive sě, which is an item on the boundary between a pronominal form and a discrete morpheme. In the first part of the study, we investigate the (en)clitic status of sě in eight books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation. The analysis focuses only on sě that is dependent on a finite verb: it identifies all possible word order positions of sě in a clause and interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech (en)clitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an (en)clitic is located after first word/phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an (en)clitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item.
In the second part of the paper, the distribution of clause positions of the reflexive pronoun sě is analyzed statistically. Specifically, the impact of both stylistic factors and the length of the element in the initial position are investigated. The authors also discuss the possible influence of the word order of the Latin pretext (the Vulgate) on the Old Czech translation.
In this part of the paper, the distribution of clause positions of the reflexive pronoun sě is analyzed statistically. Specifically, the impact of both stylistic factors and the length of the element in the initial position are investigated. The authors also discuss the possible influence of the word order of the Latin pretext (the Vulgate) on the Old Czech translation.
The paper is focused on the short pronominal forms that have status of so called stálá enklitika (‘permanent enclitics’ or enclitica tantum) in Modern Czech: mi ‘me’, ti ‘to you’, si ‘to myself / to yourself etc.’, sě (> se) ‘myself / yourself etc.’, tě ‘you’, ho ‘him’, mu ‘to him’. The analysis is based on the material gained from the selected books of the oldest complete Czech Bible translation from the half of the 14th century. The first part of the study deals with the frequency of the analyzed forms, especially with the lack of the forms si, ti and the low frequency of the short forms ho, mu (developed from the disyllabic forms jeho > jho > ho, jemu > jmu > mu). The next part is focused on the word order properties of the analyzed pronominal forms that are dependent on a finite verb. The article interprets them in the light of the main competing positions of Czech enclitics during the development of the language: 1. the postinitial position, i.e. when an enclitic is located after first word / phrase; 2. the contact (verb-adjacent) position, i.e. when an enclitic is located immediately before (preverbal position) or after (postverbal position) its syntactically or morphologically superordinate item. In the last part of the article, the question of the change of the previously orthotonic forms sě, tě into the permanent enclitic forms is examined.
Hlavním cílem tohoto příspěvku je prozkoumat slovosled dativních zájmenných forem mi, si, ti v jednom z nejstarších neveršovaných českých textů. Studie je součástí výzkumu vývoje českých pronominálních enklitik a jejím smyslem je připravit východisko pro analýzu slovosledu dalších zájmenných tvarů, které se ve stabilní enklitické formy změnily teprve v průběhu historického vývoje češtiny (ho, mu, sě, tě). Sledované formy mi, si, ti jsou krátké varianty dativu singuláru, které měly status enklitik tantum již od praslovanského období.
The project fulfilled all of the main objectives: